A very good research article on data mining by IJSRD JOURNAL
Paper Title : Perspectives on Intelligent System Techniques used in Data Mining
Author Name : Poonam Verma
College Name : United Institute of Technology
Abstract— With the uprising trend of the social media, for marketing purposes and for personal communication, the data mining techniques used in the early decade can no longer handle the data for pattern recognition .It becomes necessity that the data mining techniques become intelligent enough to deal with the volume and variety of the data being searched for recognizing patterns or trends. Thus in this article, I have explored the various neural networks and their techniques being implemented on data to find a particular trend. Various applications of such hybrid intelligent systems have been discussed. Perceptron and it’s varieties have been long used for machine learning without the human intervention. Moreover their various features are inspired by the biological strategies endowed by nature on humans to recognize, learn and innovative ideas to solve their problems. Humans have various sensory organs to help them receive their inputs from the surroundings, however it is their brain that helps them to process the large data and get the required data as an output. Neural Networks are based on the Human brain and the nervous system. So we shall explore various intelligent systems of Neural Networks to help in data mining.
For Full Paper visit http://www.ijsrd.com/Sp_Article.php?manuscript=SPDM002
Zero-emission cars that run on hydrogen
Fuel cell” vehicles have been long promised, as they potentially offer several major advantages over electric and hydrocarbon-powered vehicles. However, the technology has only now begun to reach the stage where automotive companies are planning to launch them for consumers. Initial prices are likely to be in the range of $70,000, but should come down significantly as volumes increase within the next couple of years.
Unlike batteries, which must be charged from an external source, fuel cells generate electricity directly, using fuels such as hydrogen or natural gas. In practice, fuel cells and batteries are combined, with the fuel cell generating electricity and the batteries storing this energy until demanded by the motors that drive the vehicle. Fuel cell vehicles are therefore hybrids, and will likely also deploy regenerative braking – a key capability for maximizing efficiency and range.
Unlike battery-powered electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles behave as any conventionally fuelled vehicle. With a long cruising range – up to 650 km per tank (the fuel is usually compressed hydrogen gas) – a hydrogen fuel refill only takes about three minutes. Hydrogen is clean-burning, producing only water vapour as waste, so fuel cell vehicles burning hydrogen will be zero-emission, an important factor given the need to reduce air pollution.
There are a number of ways to produce hydrogen without generating carbon emissions. Most obviously, renewable sources of electricity from wind and solar sources can be used to electrolyse water – though the overall energy efficiency of this process is likely to be quite low. Hydrogen can also be split from water in high-temperature nuclear reactors or generated from fossil fuels such as coal or natural gas, with the resulting CO2 captured and sequestered rather than released into the atmosphere.
As well as the production of cheap hydrogen on a large scale, a significant challenge is the lack of a hydrogen distribution infrastructure that would be needed to parallel and eventually replace petrol and diesel filling stations. Long distance transport of hydrogen, even in a compressed state, is not considered economically feasible today. However, innovative hydrogen storage techniques, such as organic liquid carriers that do not require high-pressure storage, will soon lower the cost of long-distance transport and ease the risks associated with gas storage and inadvertent release.
Mass-market fuel cell vehicles are an attractive prospect, because they will offer the range and fuelling convenience of today’s diesel and petrol-powered vehicles while providing the benefits of sustainability in personal transportation. Achieving these benefits will, however, require the reliable and economical production of hydrogen from entirely low-carbon sources, and its distribution to a growing fleet of vehicles (expected to number in the many millions within a decade).
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Last Date For Paper Submission of Special Issue : 25th August 2015
What is Image Processing?
Image processing is a method to convert an image into digital form and perform some operations on it, in order to get an enhanced image or to extract some useful information from it. It is a type of signal dispensation in which input is image, like video frame or photograph and output may be image or characteristics associated with that image. Usually Image Processingsystem includes treating images as two dimensional signals while applying already set signal processing methods to them.
It is among rapidly growing technologies today, with its applications in various aspects of a business. Image Processing forms core research area within engineering and computer science disciplines too.Image processing usually refers to digital image processing, but optical and analog image processing also are possible.
Analog or visual techniques of image processing can be used for the hard copies like printouts and photographs. Image analysts use various fundamentals of interpretation while using these visual techniques. The image processing is not just confined to area that has to be studied but on knowledge of analyst. Association is another important tool in image processing through visual techniques. So analysts apply a combination of personal knowledge and collateral data to image processing.
Digital Processing techniques help in manipulation of the digital images by using computers. As raw data from imaging sensors from satellite platform contains deficiencies. To get over such flaws and to get originality of information, it has to undergo various phases of processing. The three general phases that all types of data have to undergo while using digital technique are Pre- processing, enhancement and display, information extraction.
If you have worked on any part of image processing prepare a research paper and submit to us
Image processing basically includes the following three steps.
- Importing the image with optical scanner or by digital photography.The acquisition of images (producing the input image in the first place) is referred to as imaging.
- Analyzing and manipulating the image which includes data compression and image enhancement and spotting patterns that are not to human eyes like satellite photographs.
- Output is the last stage in which result can be altered image or report that is based on image analysis.
Purpose of Image processing
The purpose of image processing is divided into various groups. They are:
- Visualization – Observe the objects that are not visible.
- Image sharpening and restoration – To create a better image.
- Image retrieval – Seek for the image of interest.
- Measurement of pattern – Measures various objects in an image.
- Image Recognition – Distinguish the objects in an image.
Applications of Image processing
Image processing has been an important stream of Research for various fields. Some of the application areas of Image processing are….
Intelligent Transportation Systems – E.g. Automatic Number Plate Recognition, Traffic Sign Recognition
Remote Sensing –E.g.Imaging of earth surfaces using multi Spectral Scanners/Cameras, Techniques to interpret captured images etc.
Object Tracking – E.g. Automated Guided Vehicles, Motion based Tracking, Object Recognition
Defense surveillance – E.g. Analysis of Spatial Images, Object Distribution Pattern Analysis of Various wings of defense. Earth Imaging using UAV etc.
Biomedical Imaging & Analysis – E.g. Various Imaging using X- ray, Ultrasound, computer aided tomography (CT) etc. Disease Prediction using acquired images, Digital mammograms.etc.
Automatic Visual Inspection System – E.g.Automatic inspection of incandescent lamp filaments, Automatic surface inspection systems, Faulty component identification etc.
And many other applications…..
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